In Grand Voyage, goods are the true representation of the Age of Discovery. Now let's take a look at the popular goods in Europe's coastal ports back then. Copper ore:
Near London, copper is mined in the Nordic alpine regions, thus the minerals are good and copper content is high, and its refined copper is widely used for producing copper shield and daggers. After several centuries, copper became an important raw material, and aroused the English Industrial Revolution.
British Isles have a unique climate, and the unique moisture and alpine conditions are formed in the plains of northern England and Scotland. The unit output of wheat is high. Based on this, in the subsequent several hundred years, British Isles maintained a leading position in agriculture.
In the northern London mountains, iron ore is mainly of black iron with the high iron content, and is widely applied by the European countries for the production of weapons, shipbuilding and house building. The iron ore Materials made UK become a military power.
In the primitive forests of Nordic alpine region, timbers are featured by the hard tough wood and high density. Besides, timbers are the preferred Materials of shipbuilding parts, such as keel and mast.
Along the coastal Norway and Holland regions, the sea water is cold and clean. Europe's highest peak and mountain extend to the deep sea, forming the incredible bay and becoming an ideal place abounds in high quality fish. Norwegian salmon is known as King of the Ocean.
Shorthorn originates from England Northumberland, Dram, York, Lincoln, etc.. It was bred by hybridizing with local species in the eighteenth century. Shorthorn had larger weight and strong constitution. Later it was spread to Europe, and became the world-renowned beef cattle.
In the Netherlands Plains, tin ore has good ductility after being refined, and is widely used in European countries to produce the high-end jewelry and tableware. Amsterdam's tin mining area has supported many cities' handicraft industry and trade.
In the special Baltic circumstance, Herring is featured by the tasty meat and high fat content. It has a wide range of application, and is popular in Europe.
Originating in the famous Netherlands, the Holstein cow's appearance is iconic black and white. It has high milk protein content, and is widely popular in all countries. In Germany, Germanic people have carried forward its characteristics after the test improvements.
European sheep species are more than any other country, including the most famous Nordic Cheviot sheep wool. The wool is naturally curly, white with good luster and dying fastness. It enjoys good reputation in the world.
The precious wine originates in France. Since France is located in the European continent and connects to the Mediterranean and the North Sea, a unique grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon is the soul of Bordeaux wines.
Crocus originates from the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor and Iran. In Greece and Rome, saffron is sprinkled into the hall, palace, theater and bathroom. Crocus is closely related to geisha in ancient Greece. When the dictator Nero returned to Rome, the street was full of saffron.
Due to moderate Mediterranean climate, more fogs and high humidity, Bordeaux is conducive to the buffalo growth. Buffalo is resilient, elastic with large hides and small scar points, so Bordeaux produces the famous leather.
Olive has thousands of years' history in the coastal Mediterranean region, and the fruits are used to extract oil. Olive branch is also a symbol of peace. A dove sent by Noah fetched an olive branch, and then it brought back the re-civilization.
The oily pigments, originating from the southern and western Europe, were made of high-purity refined linseed oil. Later, these colorful pigments were spread to the whole Europe. Due to these unique pigments, Italy became the Holy Land of oil paintings during the Renaissance. There were lots of famous oil painters, including Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, etc.
The specialty nuts produced in the Iberian peninsula are full, nutritious and tasty. The nuts can also be used to make nut cookies and nut chocolates.
Cotton was one of the most important crops in the world, and its fiber can be made into different fabrics. In the Mediterranean region, cotton is spread from the Indus Basin. The cotton has tough fiber with good warmth effects.
Flax is an ancient fiber crop and oil crop. Flax originated in the Near East and the coastal Mediterranean region. As early as 5, 000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians had already began to use The flax fiber to weave cloth. All mummies in Egypt are also covered with The flax.
Tomato originated from Mexico, and no one dared to eat for several centuries. Later, a French painter made an attempt, and the delicious fruit was then presented to the world. In the Mediterranean region, tomatoes contain high sugar content, and are famous around the world.
The transparent ore has hard texture, and its main component is silicon dioxide. The crystal mines in the Alps and the Apennine peninsula are pure and transparent, which can be used for producing the gorgeous decorations.
Raisin is a preserved fruit processed by drying the fresh grapes. In Europe and the Mediterranean region, the specialty preserved fruit tastes sour, sweet and delicious, and becomes the best raw Materials to make fruit snacks and chocolates.
It is processed with saffron buds, concentrated with most effects of saffron, and its value is equal to the gold with the same weight. It has many effects, such as promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.
Processed cow leather
Initial processing of rawhide will shape mature hide, pass through disinfection, fleshing, shaving, dosing treatment and hot water processes, so as to form the soft wet blue leather with clear pores, plump and elastic.
Olive pulp has unique flavor, rich nutrition, rich vitamin C and calcium, phosphorus, iron and other minerals. It is popular in the European royalties.
Refined colored dye from minerals and animals, mixed with natural linseed oil; a necessary material for drawing. Scandinavia is abundant in various minerals, so the refined fuels have vivid colors, which are not easy to fade.
It was a unique European nut, and processed through the unique baking process in the northern Europe. It is featured by the unique shape, rich flavor and nutrition. It is favored by people of upper class when drinking the afternoon tea.
Crystallizations refined from crystal ores are crystal-clear and transparent with hexagonal cone. Crystals containing impurities consist of amethyst, red crystal, blue crystal, etc., which is an excellent material for the production of decorations. There are masters and historic brands in Europe, such as Swarovski.
In the Aegean Sea and the Balkans areas, Tomatoes are stored after being squeezed as juice in Northern Europe, which are delicious and nutritious. Tomato juice is not only an optimal product for food, but also has the huge effects of cancer prevention. Therefore, European residents rely on tomato juice as a common health product to clean the body wastes.
In the coastal Mediterranean region, high-quality cottons are produced. There are many cotton-processing factories in Germany. According to different spinning processes, yarn is divided into the carded yarn and combed yarn, which are semi-finished products for producing the cotton textiles.
Light cotton fabrics with thin textures.Made from cotton and flax.Flax is famous for its cool and air permeable features, it is one of the most-weared summer clothes.
In the temperate Iberian Peninsula, semi-finished products of copper mine are featured by the regular shape and low impurity content, and they are selected as the raw Materials of other copper products.
Wheat flour is an ingredient of various wheaten foods. In Europe, wheat is featured by full particles, delicate flour and high protein content. It is a typical material to make baking bread.
In the temperate Iberian Peninsula, semi-finished products of iron ore are refined through several smelting processes, and can be used for producing the iron products.
After the cutting of coniferous forest in the Nordic alpine region, it can be used for construction Materials. Marseilles is a main port in the Mediterranean Coast, and timbers are transported to Europe and other countries. Since the ancient times, timbers are one of the main construction Materials of human beings.
Source of origin:Tunisia
World famous Norwegian salmon, usually sent to the Mediterranean to be made into sashimi. After taking away head, skin and bones, the salmon can made into delicious sashimi. Residents alongside the Mediterranean take fishes as their main food from ancient times.
In the Mediterranean, cattle horns are usually used for the production of giant bugles. If there are wars, the bugle will blow. The high spirits will be filled between Heaven and Earth, and greatly encourage the soldiers.
Milk is one of the most ancient natural drinks. As early as thousands of years, people began to domesticate and breed dairy cows. Holstein cow milk had rich nutrition and high production.
In the coastal Mediterranean region, the special goats like trekking in the mountains. The goat milk has rich nutrition and unique flavor, and it's a common nourishing drink for the royal families in Europe.
In the Mediterranean region, the seawater was light, suitable for the growth of fish with high fat content. The fish oil is an excellent health care product refined from the fish here, which can protect the heart and cerebral vessels.
The tin ore is From southern area of the ore district in Mediterranean. Through the complex smelting process, it contains little impurity, and can be made into tinworks.
It is a kind of fabric made of flax, ramie, jute, sisal, abaca hemp and other plant fibers. Its advantages lie in the high strength, moisture absorption, thermal conductivity and good permeability.
A juice squeezed from the grape pulp. Grape juice contains a lot of sugar, most of which is glucose. Grape juice is often used to prepare wine, brandy or whiskey. In the wine industry, grape juice is an essential product.
The firearm parts made from the malleable cast iron molding are necessities for firearm assembly. Nordic firearm castings have strong overall sense and solid Materials with the great power.
Cow leather dressed
European purebred rawhide is made by hundreds of procedures and twenty different tanning agent formulas. The tanned cowhide is filled with the sense of texture, and is used for the production of high-end leather products.
Olive oil's From is in the coastal Mediterranean region and it originates from the Crete Island. Due to the rich unsaturated fatty acids, it is extremely healthy and known as Liquid Gold. Even Cleopatra once used it for youth.
This is the main painting variety of Western paintings, which blends the pigments with quick-drying vegetable oil and makes artistic creations on cardboard or wood board. European artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo once used pigments and brushes to create a Renaissance Age.
The oil is squeezed from the nuts produced in the Central and Eastern Europe plains, and is also known as Liquid Gold. It contains a large number of essential fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acids.
Transparent Materials are generally used as the decoration Materials of buildings. About 3000 years ago, the Phoenician found that soda and sand could form a transparent rigid solid at high temperature, and this was just the earliest glass. In the 4th century, the Europeans had applied glass to doors and windows.
Fruit wine takes the seasonal fruits or wild fruits as raw Materials. It's processed through crushing, juice squeezing, fermentation or soaking, and carefully brewed into low-alcoholic beverage wine. Later, the brewing technology of fruit wine is spread to northern Europe.
It is a kind of cloth woven with cotton. It has advantages of easy warmth, softness, close fitting, good moisture absorption and air permeability. In the Mediterranean, cotton becomes the most favorite material among local residents.
Wheat bran is also known as oatmeal, the by-product of wheat flour processing, wheat yellow, flake or powder. It is rich in fiber and vitamins, and mainly used in food, medicine, feed ingredients and wine. The digestive biscuits made from wheat bran is very popular in Spain.
Saffron has delicate leaves and elegant flowers with colors of white, purple and orange, which is a good material for decorating the garden or indoor ornamentation. They are planted in the French royal court.
In the alpine region of Northern Europe, the coniferous forest timbers are processed into wood beam by the skilled French artisans, characterized by the compact wood, resistance to moisture and insects as well as uneasy deformation. Key palaces and temples all use this timber for girder.
In the Mediterranean region, the residents love eating fish. The Norwegian salmons are hard to be stored under the hot and humid environments, so they are made to be dried fish. Similar to dried beef, dried fish is delicious, and contains high nutrition and non-perishable characteristics.
The dried beef is made by hundreds of processes, containing a variety of minerals and amino acids. It not only maintains the flavor of beef, but also can be stored without deterioration. In the Age of Sail, due to the high nutrition and non-perishable feature, it almost becomes an essential food for sailors.
The Apennine Peninsula is not only the center of art but also the center of food. Most food here need to be preserved, so they use the tin as material to preserve food.
Cheese is a food derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, and can be the material of cakes.
Because of the handicraft industry around the Mediterranean in Northern Africa, many handicrafts are not only good at making ornaments, but also at producing iron tools. The components of cannon here are meticulously produced, and are the necessity for assembling a cannon.
Yogurt takes milk as its raw material, and is processed through disinfection and fermentation. The Mediterranean temperatures are suitable for milk fermentation. 2000 years ago, the ancient Thracian region in northeastern Greece and Bulgaria mastered the yogurt production technology. Later, yogurt technology was spread to other European countries. Yogurt in Western Europe was also very famous for unique flavor.
In the Mediterranean, the Herring skin is rich in protein and trace elements, and its main protein is collagen that can be used for beauty.
Weapons of the Viking pirates are made from the high-quality iron mineral in Scandinavian Peninsula, featured by the high carbon content, good hardness and slightly curved blade. The weapons are preferred by the pirates in Northern Europe.
Ambers are resins of coniferous plants. They are buried in the ground for a long time, and through the processes of losing the volatile components, polymerizing and solidifying. Their colors are mostly yellow, orange, brown or dark red.
It is an artwork of Polish plains. Since it was located in Northern Europe, the weather was cold, and the inhabitants used candles for lighting. Later candles developed to be used in parties and celebrating supplies. It was made through the unique process that was handed down for hundreds of years.
Most Nordic nations advocate at force. The Vikings region produces various high-quality iron copper ore. After generations of craftsmen, the Nordic armors are solid, enduring, lightweight and flexible.
In the Vikings Alpine region, beer is brewed by the local unique barley malt blended with hops. It is featured by the dark brown color, rich foam and strong flavor.
It's based on sponge cake and pie, mixed with processed cheese, then to be baked and decorated as the last step. It is produced with the best goat cheese, and has a special taste to be regarded as an excellent food.
In the coastal countries of the North Sea and the Baltic, ambers are golden yellow, featured by the crystal texture, good quality and large size. Its production accounts for 90% of the total number of ambers.
Brandy, originally from Dutch Brandewijn, means fired wine. Narrowlu speaking, it refers to the high alcohol got from the distillation after grape fermentation, stored in the oak, and thus called Soul of Wine. Brandy produced in the Cognac region of France was most famous. Wine brewing in the Baltic Sea area is also developed and has its own unique taste.
Ceramics product made of clay. The history of chinaware in England and Holland can track back to hundreds of years ago. And they are also elegant arts.
Rigahas a high-angle initial velocity with great power. Although the in-flight trajectory is not very stable, due to the high initial velocity, it is suitable to be used for armor piercing shell.
The wine of Greece was firstly recorded 6001 years ago. In HOMERIC EPIC, Odyssey drank the Cyclops with wine, which helped him get free. The climate in the Mediterranean is good for the growth of grapes, so Italy is not only the heaven of art and sailing, but also good at making wine.
Rifle is one of the earliest firearms, developing from China's musket. After being improved by handicraft workshops of Iberian Peninsula, Portugal used it for sailing plunder, so the Portuguese military power significant increased. Therefore, Portugal occupied many overseas colonies.
The technology of making sails is imported from Barcelona. This sail is made of leather and flax fiber, solid and dry, good for sailing around the Mediterranean.
Honey is gathered from the flower and made in the hive. Honey moisture content is less, so bacteria and yeasts can not survive in honey, and Honey is the only food that will not go bad. Honey is rich in nutrients, tastes sweet, and is the favorite food around the world.
Velvet products are made from the wing fluff of wild swan in Mediterranean. The products are favorites of the nobilities in different countries.
The leather product made from the special cow leather in Europe, have natural textures, and they are breathable, smooth, and thin. These leather products do not fade and are completely handmade. It is honored as a luxury, combining practicality with elegance.
Gold art craft
The Southwestern Mediterranean is rich in oil and gold. Gold is suitable for producing luxury decorative products. Iberian Peninsula gold has high purity and good color.
At beginning, glass is made from the acidic rocks of volcano. More than 5000 years ago, the residents in Northern Africa were already able to make glassware. In 13th century, the glass manufacturing technology in Italy was highly developed. In case of the disclosure of the technology, the glass-artisans were kept on the island through their life. With the development of technology, the glassware from Southern Europe become an excellent art.
The tin ore is From southern area of the ore district in Mediterranean. Through the complex smelting process, it contains little impurity, and can be made into tinworks.
Volcanos are easy to be seen on the Apennine Peninsula, such as Vesuvio. A volcano may destroy a city(Pompeii), but may also create an art, such as the handcrafts made by the stone from volcano after its eruption.
Royal Earl Grey
Earl Grey tea is one of the most popular teas in the Western countries. It is made from the black tea leaves and buds, matched with the bergamot, citrus, etc., so that the traditional tea sends out elegant flavors. As people said, when Charles Earl was British Prime Minister, he sent an envoy to China. The envoy saved an official of Qing Dynasty. For gratitude, the official gave a tea and formula to the Earl. Later, the Earl's family permitted to sell the tea in public, and hence the name of Earl Grey. Now many brands of Earl Grey tea still use China's red tea as the raw material. Later, British tea spread throughout Europe in the Age of Sail. Holland Earl Grey added with the high-quality milk is more tasty.
Excellent pure silver dinner plate
In the Age of Sail, the wealthy merchants and aristocrats from Hamburg, Cologne, Bremen and other cities participated in Hanseatic League. Hanseatic League monopolized the trade of Baltic region, and set up trading sites in London and coastal Novgorod regions. As a leading city of Hanseatic League, Hamburg attracted a multitude of aristocrats, merchants, and artisans, because they admired the extremely flourishing commercial development. They had dinner by using sophisticated silver tableware and lighting up the colored candles. The silver dinner plate and beautiful patterns all reflect the excellent levels of handicraft during the Hanseatic period.
Fine crystal necklace
European Pyrenees to the Alps area is rich in crystal mines. Pyrenees crystals are clear with perfect transmission of light and various rare natural silky textures. The European royal jewelry craftsmen and masters were the first to discover that the beautiful crystal was a good material for making jewelries. They could be cut and carved into the complex patterns. The masters customized the fine crystal necklaces for queens and princesses. For centuries, these fine crystal necklaces have become essential for the females of royal family. Some earl and duke's sons also loved to send them to their beloved girls, implying that their love was as pure as crystal.
Truffes Chocolate is famous for its shape to the French Truffes. The traditional method of making truffles chocolate enables it to shape like sand stained truffes. It has three formulas, and tastes different. As people said, a Spanish princess married with a French royal family, and introduced Spanish cocoa into France. The chef of French royal family made the chocolate into the truffle shape, and hence the name. Later, the Spanish royal family also began to wrap cocoa powder, so as to make the Truffes Chocolate. Due to the high-quality Spanish cocoa, Truffes Chocolate is even better than French Truffes Chocolate.
Europeis rich in crystal mines, and many Nordic regions have high-quality crystals. Most of them are used to make a wide variety of jewelries. In the Oslo area, handicraftsmen have made various statues with unique national characteristics. The most famous one is crystal mermaid.
Copenhagenarea is close to the Arctic Circle. For the residents, warmth is the biggest problem. The residents wear fur coat made of elk leather, which is soft, lightweight, hard and tough with very good warm effects.
The texture of copper is relatively soft and easy to be preserved. Because of its good quality, it is a right choice to make it into handicraft. There are lots of copper ore around Tunisia, so the handicraftsmen in Tunisia make use of the resource to creative beautiful copper handicrafts. They mainly reflect the civilization of Carthage, being honored as the monument of classical art in Tunisia.
Tuscanyis located in the central and western Italy, and the prefecture is the ancient city of Florence. High-quality red wines produced in Tuscany belong to the branch of Sangiovese grapes. The wine has deep color, tasty, lively and varied with plum and other local flavors. Sometimes the best red wine with compact structure and fine thick body can be brewed. The most famous wines were classical Chianti Clsaaico and Brunello di Montalcino in Italy.
Special Viking dagger
Since the ancient times, Nordic Vikings have deep adventuring genes and great enthusiasm for reclaiming, and they are always keen to explore the unknown lands. To make a living, the Vikings created lots of effective tools and sharp weapons. Viking dagger is one of them. Each dagger has condensed each Viking dagger master's wisdom and efforts. Daggers have open-sided blades, and the blade is sharp and has certain toughness, which can cut, peel and fight with the beasts, and can also provide great help. Only brave Viking warriors are eligible to use the special Viking daggers that are produced by the master with lifelong efforts.
Handmade pure carpet
The maual knotted carpet is the proud of Tunisia, among which the best kind is the style of classical Karen. The technology is imported from Turkey. What's interesting is that, the carpets in Tunisia are all made by women, and they are not dyed, as to show their natural color. The carpet is elegant and fantastic, containing some folk custom of Barbar. Creativity and originality are fully shown on the masterwork.
Handmade Swiss wristwatch
Swiss watches have been famous since the 17th century throughout the world, and they are beautifully crafted and accurate. The handmade watch is the best. It might take a watchmaker several years to make a handmade watch. Therefore, the handmade watch has great value for collection. Swiss watch industry is second to none in the world, but it is not native to Switzerland. In the late 16th century, a religious struggle in France resulted in a massacre, and the Huguenots following the Calvinist fled to Switzerland, and brought the watch manufacturing technology. The technology combined with the local gold and silver jewelry industry, and then, the watch-making industry emerged in Switzerland.
Fine Bone China
Bone china takes the animal bone charcoal, clay, feldspar and quartz as the basic raw Materials, and is processed through the high-temperature bisque firing and low-temperature glaze firing. Bone china is firstly produced in UK. The invention process was quite a comedy. At first, Thomas Fry accidentally mixed the animal ashes during the production , and later, the success was achieved by Josiah Spode. It is featured by the sophisticated Materials, fine production, strict standards and high requirements for regularity, whiteness, transparency and thermal stability. It has unique shape, white and delicate texture, which is specially used by the European countries, as well as the only high-grade porcelain recognized by the world.
Coffee, tea and cocoa were three most important drinks in the world. Coffee originated from a Kaffa village in Africa. As a legend goes, a shepherd found his sheep bouncing and dancing. He took a closer look, and found the sheep behaved weirdly due to a red fruit. After he picked up red fruits to boil, the house was full of aroma, and the boiled juice enabled him energize and refresh. Since then, the fruit was used as a refreshing beverage. Today, most of the world's best coffee was produced in the Caribbean area of America, especially the king of coffee - Blue Mountain.
Cigar was a type of cigarette, and it passes through the drying and fermenting processes. In the Yucatan Peninsula, the native Americans were the first nation to grow tobacco. They planted a plant on the peninsula, and then used palm leaves or plantain leaves to roll up the dried and distorted leaves, burned it to absorb the smoke, and this was the early cigar. Columbus brought the seeds to Europe, and became the latest trend of European aristocracy. Since then, cigars had become the aristocracy of tobacco. As the spreading of new route, cigar was gradually popular in the world.
Sisal was also known as sisal hemp, agave plants, native to the Caribbean in Central America. It had short stems, with the shape like a sword, and the blade tip had brown sharp thorns. There were also upper curved or recurved brown sharp thorns at the edges of leaves. Sisal hemp leaf was a good material for preventing water. It was featured by the tensile strength, water wet, abrasion resistance and non-perishable in salt water. In the Age of Sail, European navigators had to take lots of spare parts until they found sisal in America.
The word rubber comes from the Indian cau-uchu, meaning weeping tree. There was a Hevea species in the Caribbean. When the skin was cut, it would flow milky sap, which was called latex. Natural rubber was processed through latex condensation, washing, molding and drying. Rubber was featured by elasticity and imperviousness. Due to the impervious feature, the early rubber was mainly used to repair houses or vessel defects, and was later used for the production of catapult weapons. Before the invention of firearm, it was a powerful weapon.
In the east England, weapon workshops are transformed based on Portuguese rifles. It can be adapted to the cold weather. With the development of the UK glass optical technology, the outstanding artisans dramatically improved the rifle aiming accuracy and lethality. In the battle fighting for maritime supremacy with Portugal as well as the war with France, the British elite rifle achieved notable merits.
Royal jelly is a secretion of bee. Beekeeping history can be traced back to three thousand years ago. In ancient Egypt and medieval Europe, royal jelly also had wide range of applications. In the records of Alexander and the travel notes of Marco Polo, in the Bible, Koran, Judaism Code, the effects of royal jelly were all described. In China, royal jelly was also called Essence of Flowers. It is said that Royal jelly has the effect of bringing back to life and health. As a southern French city, due to the hot and humid Mediterranean climate, Bordeaux's wine industry is developed. The city not only has a world-renowned wine industry, but also has the historic tradition of beekeeping and making honey.
XO is a division mark of brandy Year. Brandy is distilled from wine with higher acidity and less sugar, so it has the following two results: 1. to improve wine alcohol, a lot of more grapes are needed. 2. since XO uses more grapes, and its acidity is high, so the original wine flavor is extremely rich. Besides, the sour ingredient is one of the sources for wine's complexity. Distillation of XO brandy is very strict, consisting of single distillation, semi-continuous distillation and continuous distillation. After distillation, brandy shall be stored, because the original wine is colorless, transparent, non-full-bodied taste. XO refers to extra Old, meaning that brandy with longer year will be more than 10 years. The brandy has lost its rough sense, and the wine will turn from the transparent color to the amber color.
Delicate boat compass
Mariner's compass is also called the nautical compass. The earliest compass can be traced to China's Warring States period, and Sinan consists of a spoon and a site. Spoon is processed through a whole piece of magnet, and it will flexibly rotate after being put into the site. When it stills down, the polarity of the magnet always points south. This instrument is the predecessor of the compass. In Yuan Dynasty, China applied compass to the maritime industry. In the 12th century, the compass was spread to Europe. In the 13th century, Italians learned to make artificial magnet needle. In the late 14th century, the compass was widely used in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal where the maritime industry was developed, and then was continuously improved and finished due to frequent usage. In the 16th century, the mariner's compass became one of the leading products in Portugal.
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